Prostate Cancer – Symptom, Causes & Diagnosis Prostate cancer Signs and symptoms prostate cancers • A need to urinate frequently, especially at night • Blood in the urine • (erectile dysfunction) • Pain in the hips, (spine), (ribs), or other areas from cancer spread to bones • Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet, • loss of bladder or bowel control • Difficulty starting urination or holding back urine • interrupted flow of urine • burning urination • feeling that your bladder has not emptied fully Causes • Age: • Race: • Geography: • Family history: • Gene changes: • Diet: • Obesity: • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): • Agent Orange: • Medication: • Smoking • Being a firefighter • Prostatitis • Certain sexually transmitted infections • Having a vasectomy Diagnosis • PSA test. • Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS): • Prostate biopsy • it include: Lymph node biopsy as a separate procedure Laparoscopic biopsy: Fine needle aspiration (FNA): • DRE. • Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan. • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Grade of prostate cancer Prostate cancers are graded according to the Gleason system. This system assigns a Gleason grade based on how much the cancer looks like normal prostate tissue. • If the cancer looks a lot like normal prostate tissue, a grade of 1 is assigned. • If the cancer looks very abnormal, it is given a grade of 5. • Grades 2 through 4 have features in between these extremes.